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Vintage Mail order Italy Max 44% OFF fruit plate with decor in Made 10408 plum

Vintage Italy fruit plate with plum decor | Made in Italy 10408

$20

Vintage Italy fruit plate with plum decor | Made in Italy 10408

Vintage fruit plate with plum decor.

Marked on the bottom.

Plate no. 10408 21.

Diameter: ~ 21 cm.

The plate is in good vintage condition.
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About me:

I am Arvydas from Lithuania. After 20 years of collecting various antiques and other historical items, I decided that it is time to pass them on to another collector#39;s hands.

I hope you will find an addition to your collection, home decoration, or any other personal use.

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Vintage Italy fruit plate with plum decor | Made in Italy 10408

Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh)
QisqartirishKompyuter (AQSh)
TasnifiAsosiy protestant
Yo'nalishIsloh qilindi
SiyosatPresviterian
Hamkor moderatorlarHukmdor oqsoqol Elona Strit-Styuart va Muhtaram Gregori Jerom Bentli
XodimMuhtaram Doktor J. Herbert Nelson
Uyushmalar
MintaqaQo'shma Shtatlar
Bosh ofisLouisville, Kentukki
Kelib chiqishi1983 yil 10-iyun
BirlashishiThe Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovi va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi
Ajratishlar
Jamoatlar2019 yilga kelib 9,041[1]
A'zolar1,302,043 faol a'zo (2019)[1]
Rasmiy veb-saytpcusa.org

The Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh), qisqartirilgan Kompyuter (AQSh), a asosiy protestant nominal Qo'shma Shtatlarda. Ning bir qismi Isloh qilindi an'ana, bu eng katta Presviterian AQShda konfessiya va doktrinaga nisbatan ilg'or pozitsiyasi bilan tanilgan. Kompyuter (AQSh) 1983 yilda birlashishi bilan tashkil etilgan Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovicherkovlari joylashgan Janubiy va chegara davlatlari, bilan Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi, kimning jamoatlar har bir shtatda topish mumkin edi. Xuddi shunday nomlangan Amerikadagi Presviterian cherkovi jamoati o'z tarixini iz qoldirishi mumkin bo'lgan alohida mazhabdir Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovlarining turli xil qarama-qarshiliklari va birlashishi.

Denominatsiyada 1 352 678 faol a'zo va 19 243 kishi bor edi tayinlangan vazirlar 2018 yil oxirida 9 161 jamoatda.[2] Bu raqamga suvga cho'mgan, ammo tasdiqlanmagan yoki faol bo'lmagan a'zolar ham qo'shilgan a'zolar kirmaydi.[3][4] Masalan, 2005 yilda kompyuter (AQSh) 318 291 kishi suvga cho'mgan, ammo tasdiqlanmagan, a'zolardan va faol a'zolardan tashqari 500 mingga yaqin faol bo'lmagan a'zolardan da'vo qilmoqda.[5] So'nggi bir necha o'n yilliklar davomida uning a'zolari kamayib bormoqda; qisman ajralgan jamoatlar tufayli so'nggi yillarda bu tendentsiya sezilarli darajada tezlashdi.[6][7] Diniy konfessiyalarga o'rtacha tashrif 2013 yilda 748,774 dan 2017 yilda 565,467 gacha tushdi.[8] Kompyuter (AQSh) Qo'shma Shtatlardagi eng yirik presviterian konfessiyasidir.[9]

Tarix

Kelib chiqishi

Presviterianlar o'z tarixlarini quyidagicha izlashadi Protestant islohoti XVI asrda. Presviterian merosi va uning ko'pgina ilohiyotlari frantsuz dinshunosi va huquqshunosidan boshlangan Jon Kalvin (1509-64), uning yozuvlari ko'p narsalarni mustahkamladi Isloh qilindi va'zlari va yozuvlari shaklida uning oldiga kelgan fikrlash Xuldrix Tsvingli. Kalvinning shtab-kvartirasidan Jeneva, Islohot harakati Evropaning boshqa qismlariga tarqaldi.[10] Jon Noks, Jenevada Kalvin bilan birga o'qigan Shotlandiyalik sobiq Rim-katolik ruhoniysi Kalvinning ta'limotini Shotlandiyaga olib borib, Shotlandiya islohoti 1560 yil. Ushbu islohot harakati tufayli Shotlandiya cherkovi Islohot ilohiyotini qabul qildi va presviterian siyosat.[11] The Ulster Shotlandiya o'zlarining presviterlik e'tiqodlarini o'zlari bilan Irlandiyaga olib kelishdi va u erda nima bo'lishining asosini qo'yishdi Irlandiyadagi Presviterian cherkovi.[12]

Shotlandiya va Irlandiyadan kelgan muhojirlar 1640 yildayoq Amerikaga presviterianizmni olib kelishdi va immigratsiya mustamlakachilik davrida o'sishning katta manbai bo'lib qolaveradi.[13] O'sishning yana bir manbai qator Yangi Angliya edi Puritanlar kim tark etdi Jamoat cherkovlari chunki ular presviterian siyosatni afzal ko'rishdi. 1706 yilda yetti vazir boshchiligida Frensis Makemi birinchi amerikalikni tashkil qildi presbyteriya ning yaratilishi bilan ta'qib qilingan Filadelfiyada Filadelfiyaning sinodi 1717 yilda.[14]

The Birinchi buyuk uyg'onish va tiklanish u Amerika Presviterianlariga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Kabi vazirlar Uilyam va Gilbert Tennent, do'sti Jorj Uayfild, ongli bo'lish zarurligini ta'kidladi konvertatsiya qilish tajribasi va ruhoniylar o'rtasida yuqori axloqiy me'yorlarni talab qildi.[15] Uyg'onish bo'yicha kelishmovchiliklar, marshrutni va'z qilishva ruhoniylar uchun ta'lim talablari bo'linishga olib keldi Eski tomon va yangi tomon bahslari 1741 yildan 1758 yilgacha davom etdi.[16]

John Witherspoon, a Asoschi Ota Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va AQShdagi Presviterian cherkovining birinchi moderatori

Janubda Presviterianlar evangelist edi muxoliflar, asosan Shotland-irland1740 yildan 1758 yilgacha Virjiniya shtatiga kengaygan. Spangler (2008)[to'liq iqtibos kerak] Ular ko'proq baquvvat va tez-tez xizmat ko'rsatib, koloniyaning chegara sharoitlariga moslashganligini ta'kidlamoqda. Presviterianizm chegara hududlarida o'sdi Anglikanlar ozgina taassurot qoldirdi. Ma'lumotsiz oq va qora tanlilar mazhabning hissiy ibodatiga, Injil soddaligiga urg'u berib, Zabur kuylashiga jalb qilingan. Kabi ba'zi mahalliy presviterian cherkovlari Pivo knyaz Eduard okrugida qullarga egalik qilgan. Briery cherkovi 1766 yilda beshta qul sotib olgan va ularni mahalliy plantatorlarga yollash orqali cherkov xarajatlari uchun pul yig'gan.[17]

Qo'shma Shtatlar Buyuk Britaniyadan mustaqillikka erishgandan so'ng, Presviterian rahbarlari milliy presviteriya mazhabiga ehtiyoj sezdilar va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi Presviterian cherkovi (PCUSA) tashkil etildi. Birinchi umumiy yig'ilish 1789 yilda Filadelfiyada bo'lib o'tgan.[18] John Witherspoon, prezidenti Original pastel wave -24/30 cm va imzolagan yagona vazir Mustaqillik deklaratsiyasi, birinchi bo'ldi moderator.

PCUSA Bosh assambleyasini yaratishda barcha amerikalik presviterlar qatnashmagan, chunki keyinchalik Shotlandiya cherkovida yuzaga kelgan bo'linishlar Amerikada takrorlangan. 1751 yilda Shotlandiya Kelishuvlar vazirlarini Amerikaga yuborishni boshladi va Himoyachilar 1753 yilga qadar xuddi shunday qilishgan. 1858 yilda ko'pgina Kelishuvlar va Sekederlar birlashib Shimoliy Amerikaning Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi (UPCNA).[19]

19-asr

Mustaqillikdan keyingi o'n yilliklarda ko'plab amerikaliklar, jumladan kalvinistlar (presviterianlar va kongregatsionistlar), metodistlar va baptistlar[20][21] keyinchalik deb nomlanadigan protestant diniy tiklanishlari bilan qamrab olindi Ikkinchi Buyuk Uyg'onish. Presviterianlar ta'lim, missionerlik, evangelistlik va islohot ishlarini rag'batlantiruvchi ixtiyoriy jamiyatlarni shakllantirishga ham yordam berishdi. Uning ta'siri oshgani sayin, ko'pgina presviterlar PCUSA-ning Amerika hayotiga norasmiy ta'siri uni samarali ravishda amalga oshirishi mumkinligidan qo'rqishdi. tashkil etilgan cherkov.[22]

Ikkinchi Buyuk Uyg'onish PCUSAni revivalizm va revivalizmning quchog'iga olib borishdan qo'rqishidan ajratdi. Arminiya ilohiyoti. 1810 yilda chegara revivalistlari PCUSA-dan ajralib, uyushganlarni tashkil qildilar Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi.[23] 1820-yillarda revivalizmni qo'llab-quvvatlash va qarshi turish aniq belgilangan fraktsiyalarga aylandi, ular yangi maktab va eski maktab. 1838 yilga kelib Eski maktab va yangi maktab bahslari PCUSA-ni ikkiga bo'lingan edi. Endi har biri PCUSA vakili bo'lishni da'vo qiladigan ikkita umumiy yig'ilish mavjud edi.[24]

1858 yilda Yangi Maktab o'zining janubiy sinodlari va presbyteriyalari Presviterian cherkovining qullik tarafdori bo'lgan Birlashgan Sinodini tashkil qilganida, kesma yo'nalish bo'yicha bo'linib ketdi.[25] Eski maktab presviterianlari 1861 yilda urush harakatlari boshlangandan keyin ergashdilar Amerika fuqarolar urushi yilda Presviterian cherkovining tashkil topishi bilan Amerika Konfederativ Shtatlari.[26] CSA tarkibidagi Presviterian cherkovi 1864 yilda kichikroq Birlashgan Sinodni o'zlashtirdi. Urushdan keyin bu organ nomi o'zgartirildi Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovi (PCUS) va butun tarixi davomida "Janubiy Presviterian cherkovi" laqabini olgan.[25] 1869 yilda shimoliy PCUSA ning Eski Maktab va Yangi Maktab fraktsiyalari ham birlashdilar va "Shimoliy Presviterian cherkovi" nomi bilan tanildi.[27]

20-asr hozirgi kungacha

Ziyoratchilar cherkovi (1928) yilda Vashington, Kolumbiya
Nyu-York shahridagi Manxettendagi Birinchi Presviterian cherkovi, janubdan pastga qarab Beshinchi avenyu

20-asrning boshlarida cherkovning ikkala asosiy qismida o'sish davom etmoqda. Shuningdek, bu o'sishni ko'rdi Fundamentalist xristianlik (dinning asosiy manbai sifatida Injilni so'zma-so'z talqin qilishiga ishonganlarning harakati) Modernist nasroniylik (kabi zamonaviy ilmiy nazariyalar asosida nasroniylikni qayta talqin qilish kerak degan e'tiqodga asoslangan harakat evolyutsiya yoki tanazzulga uchragan ijtimoiy sharoitlarning ko'tarilishi sanoatlashtirish va urbanizatsiya).

Ochiq bahs-munozaralar 1922 yilda boshlangan, qachon Garri Emerson Fosdik, modernist va a Baptist Nyu-York shahridagi PCUSA jamoatiga pastorlik qilib, "Fundamentalistlar g'alaba qozonadimi?" Inqiroz keyingi yil Nyu-York Presviteriyasining bokira tug'ilishini tasdiqlay olmaydigan er-xotinni tayinlash to'g'risidagi qaroriga javoban PCUSA Bosh assambleyasi "beshta asos" ni tasdiqladi: Masihning bokira qizi Tug'ilish, vijdonli to'lov, Muqaddas Bitikning bexabarligi va Masihning mo''jizalari va tirilishi.[28] Modernizmga qarshi bu harakat Auburn tasdiqlash - liberalizm va modernizmni o'z ichiga olgan hujjat. Liberallar o'z raqiblarini cherkovlik sudlarini bir qator boshladilar, ularni cherkovdan chiqarib yubordilar va cherkov binolarini tortib oldilar. Rahbarligida J. Gresham Machen, avvalgi LAPEL PIN | Watermelon Peperomia Asos solgan Yangi Ahd professori Vestminster diniy seminariyasi 1929 yilda va PCUSA vaziri bo'lgan ushbu konservatorlarning aksariyati "deb nomlangan" narsani o'rnatadilar Pravoslav presviterian cherkovi 1936 yilda. Garchi 1930 va 1940 yillar va undan keyingi yillar neo-pravoslav diniy konsensus 20-asrning o'rtalarida polemikaning ko'pini yumshatdi, 1960-yillarning o'rtalaridan boshlab yana tortishuvlar paydo bo'ldi. fuqarolik huquqlari harakati va masalasi ayollarni tayinlashva, ayniqsa 1990-yillardan boshlab, gomoseksuallarni ordinatsiya qilish masalasida.

Birlashishlar

Qo'shma Shtatlardagi presviterianizm evolyutsiyasi
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Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi Presviterian cherkoviga ko'pchilik a'zolari qo'shildi Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi, asosan, chegara va janubiy shtatlardagi jamoatlar, 1906 yilda. 1920 yilda u Uels kalvinist metodist cherkovini o'zlashtirdi. Shimoliy Amerikaning Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi PCUSA bilan 1958 yilda birlashdi Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi (UPCUSA).

Ostida Evgeniy Karson BleykUPCUSA bayonot bergan kotib, denominatsiya ijtimoiy faollik va ekumenik harakatlar davriga kirdi, bu esa rivojlanish bilan yakunlandi 1967 yilgi iqrornoma Bu cherkovning uch asrdagi birinchi yangi e'tirofi edi. 1958 yildagi 170-chi Bosh Assambleya qo'mitaga zamonaviy zamonaviy e'tiqod bayonotini ishlab chiqish huquqini berdi. 1965 yilda 177-chi Bosh Assambleya iqrornoma loyihasini ko'rib chiqdi va o'zgartirdi va qayta ko'rib chiqilgan versiyasini cherkov ichida umumiy muhokamaga yubordi. 1966 yildagi 178-chi Bosh Assambleya qayta ko'rib chiqilgan loyihani qabul qildi va yakuniy ratifikatsiya qilish uchun cherkov bo'ylab prezerviyalarga yubordi. E'tirof barcha presbiterlarning 90% dan ortig'i tomonidan ratifikatsiya qilinganligi sababli, 178-chi Bosh Assambleya uni 1967 yilda qabul qildi. UPCUSA shuningdek, E'tiroflar kitobi yilda 1967, qaysi o'z ichiga oladi 1967 yilda e'tirof, Vestminsterda tan olish va Vestminsterning qisqaroq katexizmi, Heidelberg katexizmi, Ikkinchi Helvetik va Shotlandiya e'tiroflari va Barmen deklaratsiyasi.[29]

AQShdagi Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovini va bilan birlashtirishga urinish Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovi 1950 yillarning oxirlarida ikkinchi cherkov cherkovni qabul qilishni xohlamaganida muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi markazlashtirish. Bu orada konservativ guruh ajralib chiqdi Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovi 1973 yilda, asosan, ayollarni ordinatsiya masalalari va ilohiyotshunoslik liberalizmiga moyilligi to'g'risida. Ushbu guruh Amerikadagi Presviterian cherkovi (PCA).

Cherkovlar (UPCUSA va PCUS) o'rtasida birlashishga urinishlar 1970-yillarda yangilanib, 1983-yil 10-iyunda ikkita cherkovning birlashishi va Presviterian cherkovini (AQSh) tashkil qilishi bilan yakunlandi. Birlashish paytida cherkovlar 3.121.238 kishining umumiy a'zoligi.[30] Ko'p harakatlarni iste'fodagi tadbirkorning moliyaviy va ochiqchasiga faolligi boshqargan Tomas Klinton birlashishdan ikki yil oldin vafot etgan.[iqtibos kerak] Da yangi milliy shtab tashkil etildi Louisville, Kentukki 1988 yilda UPCUSA shtab-kvartirasini almashtirish Nyu-York shahri va joylashgan PCUS Atlanta, Jorjia.

Birlashish asosan mo''tadil-liberal amerikalik presviterianlarni bir tanaga birlashtirdi. AQShning boshqa presviterian organlari (Kumberlend presviterianlari qisman istisno bo'lib) doktrinali kalvinizm, literalistik hermenevtikaga va konservativ siyosatga ko'proq e'tibor berishadi.

Ko'pincha, PC (AQSh) presviterianlari, shunga o'xshash magistral an'analardan farq qilmaydi Yepiskop cherkovi va Masihning birlashgan cherkovi, doktrinalar, atrof-muhit muammolari, jinsiy axloq va iqtisodiy masalalar bo'yicha juda ilg'or, ammo mazhab bu masalalarda ikkiga bo'lingan va ziddiyatli bo'lib qolmoqda. Boshqa magistral konfessiyalar singari, kompyuter (AQSh) ham demografik keksayishni kuzatdi, yangi a'zolar soni kam bo'lib, 1967 yildan beri a'zolarning soni kamaymoqda.

Ijtimoiy adolat tashabbuslari va yangilanish harakatlari

1990, 2000 va 2010 yillarda Kompyuter Bosh Assambleyasi (AQSh) bir qator ijtimoiy adolat tashabbuslarini qabul qildi, ular qator mavzularni qamrab oldi: Xudo yaratgan narsalarini boshqarish, dunyo ochligi, uysizlar va LGBT muammolari. 2011 yildan boshlab kompyuter (AQSh) endi sherik gey va lesbiyan vazirlarini vazirlikdan chetlashtirdi. Ilgari, Kompyuter (AQSh) o'z vazirlaridan qolishlarini talab qilar edi "beg'uborlikda yoki nikohda sodiqlikda. "Hozirgi kunda kompyuter (AQSh) oqsoqollarga bir jinsli nikohni amalga oshirishga o'rgatishga ruxsat beradi. Jamoat asosida individual sessiyalar (jamoat boshqaruv organlari) bir jinsli nikohga ruxsat berishni tanlashi mumkin.[31]

Ushbu o'zgarishlar bir nechta yangilanish harakatlariga va denominatsion parchalarga olib keldi. Shaxsiy kompyuterdagi ba'zi konservativ fikrlovchi guruhlar (AQSh), masalan Harakatni tan olish va Presviterian Lay qo'mitasi (1960 yillarning o'rtalarida tashkil etilgan)[32] yangi, ajralib chiqish guruhlarini tuzish uchun ketishdan ko'ra, asosiy tarkibda qolishdi.

Ajratuvchi Presviterian nominallari

O'tgan yillar davomida bir nechta Presviterian konfessiyalari PC (AQSh) yoki uning salafiylaridan ajralib chiqdi. Masalan, Pravoslav presviterian cherkovi 1936 yilda AQShdagi (PC-USA) Presviterian cherkovidan ajralib chiqdi.

Yaqinda tashkil etilgan Presviterian konfessiyalari zamonaviy kompyuter (AQSh) jamoatlariga xavf tug'dirdi, ular mazhab yo'nalishidan norozi bo'lishdi, ammo islohot qilingan, presviterian mazhabida davom etishni istashdi. The Amerikadagi Presviterian cherkovi (PCA), tayinlangan ayol ruhoniylarga ruxsat bermaydi, 1973 yilda Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovidan ajralib chiqdi va keyinchalik Qo'shma Shtatlardagi ikkinchi yirik Presviterian mazhabiga aylandi. The Evangelist Presviterian cherkovi Mahalliy presbyteriyalarga tayinlangan ayol cho'ponlarga ruxsat berish imkoniyatini beruvchi (EPC) Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovidan ajralib, 1981 yilda tashkil topgan. Kompyuter (AQSh) yangilanish harakati, Eta Swiss movement 400.411 Quartz disk on 6 100% new (FOP) (hozir Hamjamiyat hamjamiyati), bir nechta milliy konferentsiyalar o'tkazib, norozi presviterianlarga xizmat qildi. FOPning tashkiliy harakatlari tashkil etilishi bilan yakunlandi EKO: Evangelist Presviterianlarning Kelishuv tartibi (ECO), ayollarni tayinlashga imkon beradigan, ammo PC (AQSh) ga qaraganda ilohiy jihatdan ancha konservativ bo'lgan yangi presviterian konfessiyasi.

2013 yilda prezervativlar Bosh assambleyaning 2012 yildagi ovozini gomoseksuallarni vazirlikka tayinlanishiga ruxsat berish uchun ratifikatsiya qildi va 2014 yilda Bosh assambleya cherkov konstitutsiyasiga o'zgartirish kiritib, nikohni erkakning birlashishi o'rniga ikki kishining birligi sifatida belgilab berdi. 2015 yilda ratifikatsiya qilingan ayol (presbyteriyalar tomonidan). Bu bir necha yuz jamoatlarning chiqib ketishiga olib keldi. Presviterian cherkovidan (AQSh) chiqib ketayotgan cherkovlarning aksariyati bu guruhga qo'shilishni tanladilar Evangelist Presviterian cherkovi yoki EKO. Kamroq katta konservativga qo'shilishni tanladilar Amerikadagi Presviterian cherkovi, bu ayol ruhoniylarga ruxsat bermaydi.[33]

Yoshlik

1983 yildan beri AQShning Indiana shtatidagi G'arbiy Lafayet shahridagi Purdue universitetida Presviterian yoshlar uch yillikligi o'tkazilib kelinmoqda va butun dunyo bo'ylab maktab o'quvchilari uchun ochiq. Birinchi Yoshlik Uch yilligi 1980 yilda Indiana Universitetida bo'lib o'tgan va o'spirinlar uchun konferentsiya - bu millatdagi eng yirik presviterian konfessiyasi - Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh); Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi; va Amerikadagi Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi, islohot qilingan an'analarda Presviterianizmni qabul qilgan birinchi afroamerikalik konfessiya.[34]

1907 yildan beri Shimoliy Karolina shtatidagi Montreat shahrida har yili yoshlar konferentsiyasi bo'lib o'tmoqda. 1983 yilda Montreat konferents-markazi shimoliy va janubiy diniy cherkovlar birlashganda Kompyuterning Milliy Konferentsiya Markaziga aylandi (AQSh).[35]

Tuzilishi

Konstitutsiya

Kompyuter Konstitutsiyasi (AQSh) ikki qismdan iborat: I qism, the E'tiroflar kitobi va II qism, Buyurtma kitobi. The E'tiroflar kitobi cherkov rahbarlari ko'rsatma beradigan va boshqaradigan aqidalarni e'lon qilib, kompyuterning (AQSh) e'tiqodlarini bayon qiladi. Buni to'ldiradi Buyurtma kitobi bu cherkovni barcha darajalarda tashkil etish va faoliyati uchun asos va tavsifni beradi. The Buyurtma kitobi hozirda to'rt qismga bo'lingan - 1) Presviterian siyosatining asoslari 2) boshqaruv shakli, 3) ibodat qilish uchun ma'lumotnoma va 4) intizom qoidalari.

Kengashlar

Bel Air Presviterian cherkovi Kaliforniya

Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh) hokimiyatning vakili shakli sifatida tanilgan presviterian siyosatda ko'rsatilgandek, to'rt darajadagi hukumat va boshqaruv bilan Buyurtma kitobi. Kengashlar (boshqaruv organlari) quyidagilar:

  1. Sessiya (jamoat)
  2. Presbiyeriya
  3. Sinod
  4. Bosh assambleya

Sessiya

Jamoat darajasida boshqaruv kengashi deb nomlanadi sessiya, lotin so'zidan sessio, "o'tirish" ma'nosini anglatadi. Sessiya cherkov ruhoniylaridan va barchadan iborat oqsoqollar tanlangan va faol xizmatga o'rnatilgan. Quddusdagi masihiylarning birinchi jamoatida o'rnatilgan namunaga binoan Havoriylar kitobi ichida Yangi Ahd, cherkov tomonidan boshqariladi presbyters (atamalar va toifalar, oqsoqollar va Kalom va Sacrament vazirlarini o'z ichiga oladi, tarixiy jihatdan "hukmron yoki kanon oqsoqollari" deb ham nomlanadi o'lchov jamoat va vazirlarning ma'naviy hayoti va faoliyati "oqsoqollarga ta'lim berish").[36]

Oqsoqollar jamoatning nomzodlar qo'mitasi tomonidan tayinlanadi; bundan tashqari, qavatdan nominatsiyalarga ruxsat beriladi. Keyin oqsoqollar jamoat tomonidan saylanadi. Oqsoqollar yig'ilishida xizmat qilish uchun saylangan barcha oqsoqollar ushbu xizmat tartibiga tayyorgarlik ko'rish va o'qish muddatini o'tashlari shart, shundan so'ng sessiya saylangan oqsoqollarni ularning shaxsiy e'tiqodlari to'g'risida tekshiradi; cherkov Konstitutsiyasida mavjud bo'lgan ta'limot, hukumat va tartib-intizom va oqsoqollik vazifalarini bilish. Agar imtihon ma'qullansa, sessiya tayinlash va o'rnatish xizmati uchun kunni belgilaydi.[37] Sessiya yig'ilishlari odatda chaqirilgan va o'rnatilgan ruhoniy tomonidan boshqariladi va protokollar kotib tomonidan yozib qo'yiladi, u shuningdek tayinlangan presbyter hisoblanadi. Agar jamoatda o'rnatilgan ruhoniy bo'lmasa, Presbytery mahalliy cherkov sessiyasi bilan kelishilgan holda moderator sifatida vazir yoki saylangan a'zoni tayinlaydi.[38] Moderator modomiki sessiyani boshqaradi tenglar orasida birinchi shuningdek, ma'lum bir jamoat ichida oqsoqollar va dekonlarni tayinlash va o'rnatish bo'yicha "liturgik" episkopga xizmat qiladi.

Sessiya mahalliy cherkov xizmatini, shu jumladan deyarli barcha ma'naviy va ishonchli rahbarlarni boshqaradi va boshqaradi. Butun jamoat faqat quyidagilarga ovoz berish majburiyatiga ega: 1) ruhoniyning chaqiruvi (presbiyeriya tomonidan tasdiqlanishi shart) va chaqiruv shartlari (cherkov tomonidan ruhoniyga kompensatsiya berish va unga g'amxo'rlik qilish qoidalari); 2) o'z zobitlarini saylash (oqsoqollar va dekanlar); 3) ko'chmas mulkni sotib olish, garovga qo'yish yoki sotish. Byudjet, kadrlar masalalari va ma'naviy hayot va missiya uchun barcha dasturlar kabi boshqa barcha cherkov masalalari sessiyaning vazifasidir. Bundan tashqari, sessiya cherkov zobitlari yoki a'zolariga nisbatan chiqarilgan intizomiy ayblovlarni ko'rib chiqish uchun cherkov sudi sifatida xizmat qiladi.

Sessiya shuningdek ishini nazorat qiladi dekanlar, shuningdek, Havoriylar Kitobiga asos solgan etakchilarning ikkinchi qismi. Deakonlar jamoat darajasidagi guruh bo'lib, uning vazifasi "muhtojlarga, kasallarga, do'stsizlarga va imon jamoati ichida va undan tashqarida qayg'uga tushganlarga xizmat qilish" dir. Ba'zi cherkovlarda dekanlarning vazifalari sessiya tomonidan ko'rib chiqiladi, shuning uchun bu cherkovda deklar kengashi yo'q. Ba'zi shtatlarda cherkovlar qonuniy ravishda birlashtirilgan va cherkov a'zolari yoki oqsoqollari korporatsiyaning ishonchli vakili sifatida xizmat qilishadi. Shu bilan birga, "bunday ishonchli vakillarning vakolatlari va vazifalari Sessiya yoki diakonlar kengashining vakolatlari va vazifalarini buzmasligi kerak". Deakonlar vazirlik kengashi, ammo boshqaruv organi emas.

Presbiyeriya

A presbyteriya geografik hududdagi barcha jamoatlar va Word va Sacrament vazirlari tomonidan jamoatlarning har biridan tanlangan (jamoat hajmiga mutanosib) oqsoqollar bilan birgalikda tuziladi. To'rtta maxsus presbyaterlar "geografik bo'lmagan", chunki ular ingliz tilida so'zlashadigan boshqa presbyaterlarni o'z ichiga oladi, garchi ular geografik jihatdan ma'lum bir sinod chegaralari bilan cheklangan bo'lsa (qarang quyida); ularga "transgeografik" deb murojaat qilish aniqroq bo'lishi mumkin. Uchta kompyuter (AQSh) sinodlarida koreys tilidagi Presviterian jamoatlari uchun geografik bo'lmagan presbiter mavjud va bitta sinodda tub amerikaliklar uchun Dakota Presbyteriyasi uchun geografik bo'lmagan presbyteriya mavjud. Hozirda kompyuterda (AQSh) 10 mingga yaqin jamoat uchun 172 ta prevyer mavjud.

Faqat presbyteriya (jamoat, sessiya, sinod yoki Bosh assambleya emas) cherkov a'zolarini buyurilgan Word va Sacrament xizmatiga tayinlash, shuningdek, o'qituvchi oqsoqol deb ataladigan vazirlarni (va / yoki) tayinlash uchun mas'uliyat va vakolatlarga ega. ularni jamoatdan pastor sifatida olib tashlash va vazirni vazirlikdan chetlatish. Presbiteryan vaziri - presbyteriya a'zosi. Bosh assambleya oqsoqolni tayinlay olmaydi yoki uni olib tashlay olmaydi, ammo Bosh assambleya har bir presbiyeriya tomonidan ko'rsatilgan xizmatchi yordamida milliy ma'lumotnomani yuritadi va nashr qiladi.[39] Chegaralangan versiyalar ikki yilda bir marta Bosh assambleya bayonnomasi bilan nashr etiladi. Cho'pon ruhoniy sifatida xizmat qiladigan jamoatning a'zosi bo'lolmaydi, chunki uning asosiy cherkov hisoboti presbyteriya bilan bog'liq. Jamoat a'zolari, odatda, prezervitariya yordami va ko'magi bilan o'zlarining ruhoniylarini tanlaydilar. Presbyteriya tanlovni ma'qullashi va ruhoniyni jamoatga rasmiy ravishda o'rnatishi yoki vaqtinchalik cho'ponlik munosabatlari to'g'risidagi ahdni tasdiqlashi kerak. Bundan tashqari, prezervativ jamoat yoki ruhoniy bu cho'ponlik munosabatlarini buzishni xohlasa, tasdiqlashi kerak.

Presbiyeriya mahalliy jamoatlarning ko'pgina ishlarini boshqarish huquqiga ega. Jamoalarning tashkil etilishi, tarqatilishi yoki birlashishini faqat presbyteriya tasdiqlashi mumkin. Presbyteriya shuningdek doimiy sud komissiyasini olib boradi, u sud majlislarida apellyatsiya sudi vazifasini bajaradi va presbyteriyaning vazir a'zolariga nisbatan intizomiy ishlarda dastlabki yurisdiktsiyani amalga oshiradi.[40]

Presbyteriyada ikkita saylangan ofitser bor: moderator va ko'rsatilgan xizmatchi. Presbyteriya moderatori har yili saylanadi yoki vazir yoki a'zosi yoki presbyteriya jamoatlaridan birining oqsoqoli. Moderator barcha presbyteriya yig'ilishlarida raislik qiladi va ushbu prezervitariyada vazirlarni tayinlash va o'rnatish bo'yicha bosh nazoratchi hisoblanadi.[41] Belgilangan xizmatchi cherkovning bosh ofitseri bo'lib, cherkov Konstitutsiyasi va Robertning tartib qoidalariga muvofiq presbiyeriyaning mas'ul kotibi va parlament a'zosi bo'lib xizmat qiladi. Presbytery moderatori odatda bir yil xizmat qilsa, ko'rsatilgan xizmatchi odatda belgilangan yillar davomida ishlaydi va presbytery tomonidan muddatsiz qayta saylanishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, ijrochi Presbyter (ba'zan General Presbyter, Presbytery-ga Pastor, Transitions Presbyter sifatida tayinlanadi) ko'pincha presbyteriyaning ma'muriy vazifalarini bajarish uchun xodim sifatida saylanadi, ko'pincha cho'ponlarga ruhoniyning qo'shimcha roli beriladi. Presbiyateriyalar o'z xodimlari uchun vazifalarni belgilash va tayinlashda ijodiy bo'lishi mumkin. Moderator va Klerkni saylash uchun presbyteriya zarur, ammo xodimlarni yollash amaliyoti ixtiyoriy. Presbiyateriyalar yiliga kamida ikki marotaba yig'ilishi kerak, ammo ular tez-tez va ko'p hollarda uchrashish huquqiga ega.

"Presbyteriyalar va sinodlar xaritasi" ga qarang.Sinking Vintage Vietnam Fu Sen Red Soil Agarwood Chips

Sinod

Presbiyateriyalar geografik mintaqa ichida a shakllanishi uchun tashkil etilgan sinod. Har bir sinod tarkibida kamida uchta presberiya bor va uning saylangan ovoz berish a'zolari ikkala oqsoqolni va Word va Sacrament vazirlarini teng sonda o'z ichiga oladi. Sinodlar xizmat ko'rsatadigan presbyteriyalarning ehtiyojlariga qarab har xil vazifalarga ega. Umuman olganda, ularning vazifalari (G-12.0102) quyidagicha umumlashtirilishi mumkin: butun mintaqada cherkovning vazifasini ishlab chiqish va amalga oshirish, prezervatorlar va Bosh assambleya o'rtasidagi aloqalarni osonlashtirish va cherkovlar va presbyteriyalar o'rtasidagi nizolarga vositachilik qilish. Har bir sinod doimiy sud komissiyasini saylaydi, u o'zining tarkibidagi prezervitlarga qarshi qo'zg'atilgan ishlarni ko'rib chiqishda dastlabki yurisdiktsiyaga ega va shuningdek, o'zining prezervitlari doimiy sud komissiyalari tomonidan chiqarilgan qarorlar bo'yicha apellyatsiya sudi sifatida xizmat qiladi. Sinodlar kamida ikki yilda bir marta uchrashishlari shart. Uchrashuvlar tanlangan Sinod Moderator tomonidan boshqariladi va Sinodning Xizmatkori tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanadi. Hozirgi vaqtda kompyuterda (AQSh) 16 ta sinod mavjud va ular o'zlarining ishlarining ko'lami va tabiati jihatidan juda xilma-xil. Kupyurada davom etayotgan hozirgi munozara sinodlarning maqsadi, vazifasi va ehtiyoji to'g'risida.

Presviterian cherkovining sinodlari (AQSh)

Pitsburgdagi Umid sobori

Shuningdek qarang Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh) sinodlari va presbyteriyalar ro'yxati.[43]

Bosh assambleya

The Bosh assambleya shaxsiy kompyuterning yuqori boshqaruv organi (AQSh). 216-chi yig'ilishgacha Richmond, Virjiniya 2004 yilda Bosh assambleya har yili yig'ilib turardi; 2004 yildan beri Bosh assambleya har ikki yilda bir marta raqamli yillarda yig'ilib kelmoqda. Uning tarkibiga presbiterlar tomonidan saylangan komissiyalar kiradi (sinodlar emas) va uning ovoz berish a'zolari oqsoqollar va Word va Sacrament vazirlari o'rtasidagi tenglik bilan mutanosibdir. Bosh assambleyaning ko'plab muhim vazifalari mavjud. Ular orasida, Buyurtma kitobi ushbu to'rttasini sanab o'tadi:

  1. cherkovning Masih ostidagi vazifasiga muvofiq ravishda cherkov ishining ustuvor yo'nalishlarini belgilash
  2. missiyaning umumiy maqsadlarini ishlab chiqish va cherkovni hayotining har bir darajasida boshqarish uchun keng qamrovli strategiyani ishlab chiqish
  3. cherkov vazifasi doirasida umumiy muvozanat va xilma-xillikka mos keladigan muhim dasturiy funktsiyalarni ta'minlash va
  4. milliy va dunyo bo'ylab guvohlik, xizmat ko'rsatish, o'sish va rivojlanish vazirliklarini tashkil etish va boshqarish.
Saylangan mansabdor shaxslar

Bosh assambleya a moderator har bir yig'ilishda ushbu yig'ilishning qolgan sessiyalarini kim boshqaradi va keyingi yig'ilishga qadar (ikki yildan keyin) yangi moderator yoki hammuallifni tanlash uchun xizmat qiladi. Hozirgi kunda denominatsiyada 222-Bosh assambleyaning (2016) birinchi koordinatorlari sifatida saylangan ham moderatorlar Denis Anderson va Yan Edmiston xizmat qilmoqda.[44] Sent-Luis shahrida (MO) o'tkazilgan 223-Assambleyada hammualliflar oqsoqol Vilmari Sintron-Olivieri va ruhoniy Sindi Kohmann saylandi. Qarang: a o'tgan moderatorlarning to'liq ro'yxati boshqa Vikipediya maqolasida.

Ma'lum bir kotib to'rt yillik muddatga saylanadi va cherkov cherkovining ishini olib boradigan Bosh assambleya uchun javobgardir. Bosh assambleya idorasi assambleyaning aksariyat funktsiyalarini va barcha konstitutsiyaviy funktsiyalarini bajaradi. Bosh assambleyaning sobiq kotibi - bu rolda 2008 yildan beri ishlagan va 2012 yilda bir ovozdan qayta saylangan Gradye Parsons.[45][46] Parsons 2016 yildagi 222-Bosh assambleyada qayta saylanish uchun qatnashmadi va J. Herbert Nelson 2016 yil Portlendda bo'lib o'tgan Bosh assambleyaning yig'ilishida Stler Klerk etib saylandi. Nelson ofisga saylangan birinchi afroamerikalik va uchinchi avlod Presviterian ruhoniysi.[47]

Belgilangan kotib shuningdek nominaldagi yozuvlar uchun mas'uldir, bu funktsiya 1925 yilda Bosh Assambleya Bosh Assambleya tarkibida "Tarixiy tadqiqotlar va tabiatni muhofaza qilish bo'limini" tashkil qilganida rasmiylashtirildi. Hozirgi "Tarix bo'limi" nomi bilan ham tanilgan Presviterian tarixiy jamiyati.[48]

Tuzilishi
Peachtree Presviterian cherkovi Atlanta, GA hozirda eng katta kompyuter (AQSh) jamoati

Oltita agentlik Bosh assambleyaning ishini olib boradi. Bular Bosh assambleya, Presbyterian nashriyot korporatsiyasi, Presviterian investitsiya va kredit dasturi, Pensiya Kengashi, Presviterian fondiva Presviterian Missiyasi Agentligi (ilgari Bosh Assambleyaning Missiya Kengashi deb nomlangan).

Bosh Assambleya Presviterian Missiyasi Agentligi Kengashining a'zolarini (ilgari Bosh Assambleyaning Missiya Kengashi) saylaydi. Presbyterian Missiyasi Agentligi Kengashining 48 ta saylangan a'zosi (40 ta ovoz beruvchi, 17 ta ovoz berilmagan delegatlar) mavjud bo'lib, ular sinodlar, presbyteriyalar va umuman cherkov vakili.[49] Bosh Assambleyaning hozirgi Moderatori (2 yillik muddat), Bosh Assambleyaning o'tgan Moderatori (bitta 2 yillik muddat), Presviterian Ayollar moderatori (bitta 3) bundan mustasno, a'zolar bir olti yillik muddatga xizmat qilishadi. -yil muddati), ekumenik maslahat a'zolari (bitta 2 yillik muddat, ikkita qo'shimcha muddat olish huquqiga ega) va keng ko'lamli a'zolari bo'lgan boshqaruv va taftish komissiyasi (bitta 2 yillik muddat, ikkita qo'shimcha muddat olish huquqiga ega). Saylangan a'zolarning asosiy vazifalari orasida Bosh assambleya missiyasining yo'nalishlari, maqsadlari, maqsadlari va ustuvorliklari asosida dastur yo'nalishlari bo'yicha ishlarni muvofiqlashtirish kiradi. PMAB yiliga uch marta yig'iladi. Bosh Assambleya Kompyuterning missiyasini nazorat qiluvchi eng yuqori ma'mur bo'lgan (AQSh) Presviterian Missiyasi Agentligining Ijrochi direktorini saylaydi. O'tgan PMA Ijroiya direktori - boshqaruvchi oqsoqol Linda Brayant Valentin (2006-2015) va vaqtinchalik RE Toni De La Roza. 2018 yilda tanlangan Elder Diane Givens Moffettga dars berish (2018-).

Bosh Assambleyaning Doimiy Sud Komissiyasi (GAPJC) - diniy cherkovning eng yuqori sudi. U Bosh assambleya tomonidan har bir tarkibiy sinoddan saylangan bitta a'zodan tashkil topgan (16). Bu Sinod doimiy sud komissiyasining barcha cherkov konstitutsiyasi masalalari bo'yicha apellyatsiya yurisdiktsiyasiga va kichik miqdordagi ishlar bo'yicha asl yurisdiktsiyaga ega. Bosh assambleyaning doimiy sud komissiyasi o'zining qarorlari bilan Presviterian cherkovi Konstitutsiyasining (AQSh) vakolatli talqinlarini chiqaradi.

www.ipc-usa.org/worship/

Hamkorlikdagi seminarlar

Denominatsiya Qo'shma Shtatlardagi o'nta seminar bilan aloqalarni saqlaydi. Bular:

Boshqa ikkita seminar shaxsiy kompyuter (AQSh) bilan shartnoma asosida tuzilgan: Auburn diniy seminariyasi Nyu-Yorkda, Nyu-Yorkda va Puerto-Rikoning evangelistika seminariyasi Puerto-Rikoning San-Xuan shahrida.

Qo'shma Shtatlarda PC (AQSh) bilan bog'langan ko'plab kollej va universitetlar mavjud. To'liq ro'yxat uchun maqolaga qarang Presviterian kollejlari va universitetlari assotsiatsiyasi. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot uchun maqolani ko'ring Kompyuter seminarlari (AQSh).

Kompyuter bilan bog'liq bo'lmagan (AQSh) prezident To'liq diniy seminariya, Mark Labberton, kompyuterning tayinlangan vaziri (AQSh) va seminariya ko'plab nomzodlarni tarbiyalaydi.[50]

Demografiya

AQShdagi Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovi bilan birlashganda Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Presviterian cherkovi 3.131.228 a'zolari bor edi. Statistika 1983 yildan beri doimiy ravishda pasayib borayotganligini ko'rsatmoqda. (PCUS va Birlashgan Presviterian cherkovining umumiy a'zoligi 1965 yilda 4,25 million kommunikant a'zoga etgan.[51])

YilA'zolikpct o'zgarishi
19843,100,951−0.98
19853,057,226−1.43
19863,016,488−1.35
19872,976,937−1.33
19882,938,830−1.30
19892,895,706−1.49
19902,856,713−1.36
19912,815,045−1.48
19922,780,406−1.25
19932,742,192−1.39
19942,698,262−1.63
19952,665,276−1.24
19962,631,466−1.28
19972,609,191−0.85
19982,587,674−0.83
19992,560,201−1.07
20002,525,330−1.38
20012,493,781−1.27
20022,451,969−1.71
20032,405,311−1.94
20042,362,136−1.83
20052,316,662−2.10
20062,267,118−2.05
20072,209,546−2.61
20082,140,165−3.23
20092,077,138−3.03
20102,016,091−3.03
20111,952,287−3.29
20121,849,496−5.26[52]
20131,760,200−4.83[53]
20141,667,767−5.54[54]
20151,572,660−5.70[55]
20161,482,767−5.71
20171,415,053−4.56
20181,352,678-4.41[2]
20191,302,043-3.74

Kompyuter (AQSh) AQShdagi protestant konfessiyalar orasida a'zolarning keskin pasayishiga duch keldi.[iqtibos kerak] Oxirgi 14 yil ichida (2005-2019) denominatsiya milliondan ortiq a'zolarini yo'qotdi. 2019 yilga kelib, denominatsiyada 1,3 million a'zo va 9000 ga yaqin mahalliy jamoatlar mavjud.

O'rtacha mahalliy Presviterian cherkovi 148 a'zodan iborat (2018 yildagi o'rtacha ko'rsatkich).[53] Umumiy jamoatlarning 37 foizga yaqini 1 dan 50 gacha a'zolarni tashkil qiladi. Yana 23% 51 va 100 a'zolari haqida xabar beradi. Mahalliy Presviterian jamoatiga sig'inishga o'rtacha 77 kishi kiradi (a'zolarning 51,7%). Kompyuterdagi eng katta jamoat (AQSh) Peachtree Presviterian cherkovi yilda Atlanta, Jorjia, xabar qilingan a'zolik soni 8989 (2009). Ma'lum bo'lishicha, Presviterian a'zolarining taxminan 31% 71 yoshdan katta (2018).

Kompyuter (AQSh) a'zolarining aksariyati oq tanli (92,9%). Boshqa irqiy va etnik a'zolarga afro-amerikaliklar (konfessiya a'zoligining 3,1%), osiyoliklar (2,3%), ispanlar (1,2%), tub amerikaliklar (0,2%) va boshqalar (0,3%) kiradi. Kompyuterning umumiy a'zolari sonining pasayishiga qaramay (AQSh), irqiy-etnik ozchilik vakillarining ulushi 1995 yildan beri shu darajada saqlanib kelmoqda. Ayollar (58%) va erkaklar (42%) nisbati ham barqarorligicha qolmoqda. 1960-yillarning o'rtalarida.[56]

Presviterianlar eng boylar orasida Qo'shma Shtatlardagi xristianlar mazhablari,[57] Presviterianlar ham yaxshi ma'lumotga ega bo'lishadi va ular juda ko'p bitirmoq (64%) va aspirant kishi boshiga daraja (26%).[58]Tomonidan 2014 yilda o'tkazilgan tadqiqotga ko'ra Pew tadqiqot markazi, Presviterianlar Qo'shma Shtatlardagi moliyaviy jihatdan eng muvaffaqiyatli to'rtinchi diniy guruh bo'lib, ularning kamida 3200% daromadlari bo'lgan uy xo'jaliklarida istiqomat qiluvchilarning 32%.[59]

Ibodat

The session of the local congregation has a great deal of freedom in the style and ordering of worship within the guidelines set forth in the Directory for Worship section of the Book of Order.[60] Worship varies from congregation to congregation. Buyurtma juda an'anaviy va juda liturgik bo'lishi mumkin yoki juda sodda va norasmiy bo'lishi mumkin. This variance is not unlike that seen in the "Oliy cherkov"va"Past cherkov" styles of the Anglikan cherkovi. The Book of Order suggests a worship service ordered around five themes: "gathering around the Word, proclaiming the Word, responding to the Word, the sealing of the Word, and bearing and following the Word into the world." Prayer is central to the service and may be silent, spoken, sung, or read in unison (including The Lord's Prayer). Music plays a large role in most PC(USA) worship services and ranges from chant to traditional Protestant hymns, to classical sacred music, to more modern music, depending on the preference of the individual church and is offered prayerfully and not "for entertainment or artistic display." Muqaddas Kitob o'qiladi va odatda voizlik qilinadi. Taklif odatda olinadi.[61]

The pastor has certain responsibilities which are not subject to the authority of the session. In a particular service of worship the pastor is responsible for:

  1. the selection of Scripture lessons to be read,
  2. the preparation and preaching of the sermon or exposition of the Bible,
  3. the prayers offered on behalf of the people and those prepared for the use of the people in worship,
  4. the music to be sung,
  5. the use of drama, dance, and other art forms.

The pastor may confer with a worship committee in planning particular services of worship.

— [W-1.4005]

The Directory for Worship in the Book of Order provides the directions for what must be, or may be included in worship. During the 20th century, Presbyterians were offered optional use of liturgik kitoblar:

Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun qarang Presviterian cherkovining liturgik kitobi (AQSh)

Shu munosabat bilan kiyimlar, the Directory for Worship leaves that decision up to the ministers. Thus, on a given Sunday morning service, a congregation may see the minister leading worship in street clothes, Geneva gown, or an alb. Orasida Paleo-ortodoksiya va paydo bo'lgan cherkov Presbyterians, clergy are moving away from the traditional black Jenevadagi xalat va nafaqat qadimiyroqni qayta tiklash Eucharist vestments of alb va chasuble, Biroq shu bilan birga kassok va ortiqcha (typically a full length Old English style surplice which resembles the Seltik alb, eskirgan liturgik ko'ylak Gallican marosimi).

The Service for the Lord's Day

The Service for the Lord's Day is the name given to the general format or ordering of worship in the Presbyterian Church as outlined in its Constitution's Book of Order. There is a great deal of liberty given toward worship in that denomination, so while the underlying order and components for the Service for the Lord's Day is extremely common, it varies from congregation to congregation, region to region.

Typical Presbyterian Church USA Order of Worship would look like this. This is taken from Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, NYCOrder of Worship | Medison prospektidagi Presviterian cherkovi

The creation of the Service for the Lord's Day was one of the most positive contributions of the Worshipbook of 1970. The Book of Common Worship of 1993 leaned heavily upon this service.

Missiyalar

The Presbyterian Church (USA) has, in the past, been a leading United States denomination in mission work, and many hospitals, clinics, colleges and universities worldwide trace their origins to the pioneering work of Presbyterian missionaries who founded them more than a century ago.

Currently, the church supports about 215 missionaries abroad annually.[62] Many churches sponsor missionaries abroad at the session level, and these are not included in official statistics.

A vital part of the world mission emphasis of the denomination is building and maintaining relationships with Presbyterian, Reformed and other churches around the world, even if this is not usually considered missions.

The PC(USA) is a leader in disaster assistance relief and also participates in or relates to work in other countries through ecumenical relationships, in what is usually considered not missions, but deaconship.

Ecumenical relationships and full communion partnerships

The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (USA) determines and approves ecumenical statements, agreements, and maintains correspondence with other Presbyterian and Reformed bodies, other Christians churches, alliances, councils, and consortia. Ecumenical statements and agreements are subject to the ratification of the presbyteries. The following are some of the major ecumenical agreements and partnerships.

The church is committed to "engage in bilateral and multilateral dialogues with other churches and traditions in order to remove barriers of misunderstanding and establish common affirmations."[63] As of 2012 it is in dialog with the Yepiskop cherkovi, Moraviya cherkovi, Amerikadagi Koreys Presviterian cherkovi, Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi, Amerikadagi Cumberland Presviterian cherkovi, va AQSh katolik yepiskoplari konferentsiyasi. It also participates in international dialogues through the Butunjahon cherkovlar kengashi va Islohot qilingan cherkovlarning Butunjahon birlashmasi. The most recent international dialogues include Pentecostal churches, the Ettinchi kunlik adventistlar cherkovi, Amerikadagi pravoslav cherkoviva boshqalar.

2011 yilda Meksikadagi milliy presviterian cherkovi, 2012 yilda Mizoram Presviterian cherkovi[64] va 2015 yilda Braziliyaning mustaqil presviterian cherkovi bilan birga Perudagi evangelist presviterian va islohot cherkovi severed ties with the PCUSA because of the PCUSA's teaching with regard to homosexuality.[65]

National and international ecumenical memberships

The Presbyterian Church (USA) is in corresponding partnership with the Cherkovlarning milliy kengashi, Islohot qilingan cherkovlarning Butunjahon birlashmasi,[66] va Butunjahon cherkovlar kengashi. Bu a'zosi Yaqin Sharq tinchligi uchun cherkovlar.

Formula of agreement

Old Whaler's Church (Sag Harbor)

In 1997 the PCUSA and three other churches of Reformation heritage: the Amerikadagi evangelistik lyuteran cherkovi, Amerikadagi isloh qilingan cherkov va Masihning birlashgan cherkovi, acted on an ecumenical proposal of historic importance, known as Shartnoma formulasi. The timing reflected a doctrinal consensus which had been developing over the past thirty-two years coupled with an increasing urgency for the church to proclaim a gospel of unity in contemporary society. In light of identified doctrinal consensus, desiring to bear visible witness to the unity of the Church, and hearing the call to engage together in God's mission, it was recommended:

Bu Amerikadagi evangelistik lyuteran cherkovi, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Amerikadagi isloh qilingan cherkov, va Masihning birlashgan cherkovi declare on the basis of A Common Calling and their adoption of this A Formula of Agreement that they are in full communion with one another. Thus, each church is entering into or affirming full communion with three other churches.[67]

The term "full communion" is understood here to specifically mean that the four churches:

  • bir-birlarini Xudoning Kalomi asosida xushxabar haqli ravishda targ'ib qilinadigan va muqaddas marosimlar to'g'ri bajariladigan cherkovlar sifatida tan oling;
  • bizning jamoatlarimizning hayoti va e'tiqodiga mos bo'lmagan har qanday tarixiy hukmni u yoki bu tomon tomonidan qaytarib olish;
  • suvga cho'mish marosimini tan olishni davom eting va Rabbiyning kechki ovqatini ularning a'zolari o'rtasida baham ko'rishga ruxsat bering va rag'batlantiring; recognize each other's various ministries and make provision for the orderly exchange of ordained ministers of Word and Sacrament;
  • cherkovlarning mavjud tuzilmalarida maslahat va qaror qabul qilishning tegishli kanallarini tashkil etish;
  • e'tiqod haqidagi umumiy tushunchani yanada aniqroq ochish va xushxabarchilik, guvohlik va xizmatda uning umumiy ifodasini rivojlantirish uchun doimiy ravishda ilohiy dialog jarayoniga o'zlarini jalb qilish;
  • o'zlarini tasdiqlash va nasihat qilish printsipi boshqalarga hurmat va muhabbat kuchayishi mumkin bo'lgan ishonchli munosabatlarning asosi bo'ladigan tarzda Xushxabar ostida birga yashashga o'zlarini va'da berishadi.

The agreement assumed the doctrinal consensus articulated in A Common Calling:The Witness of Our Reformation Churches in North America Today, and is to be viewed in concert with that document. The purpose of A Formula of Agreement is to elucidate the complementarity of affirmation and admonition as the basic principle of entering into full communion and the implications of that action as described in A Common Calling.

The 209th General Assembly (1997) approved A Formula of Agreement and in 1998 the 210th General Assembly declared full communion among these Protestant bodies.

National and international ecumenical memberships

The Presbyterian Church (USA) is in corresponding partnership with the Cherkovlarning milliy kengashi, Islohot qilingan cherkovlarning Butunjahon birlashmasi,[68] Xristian cherkovlari birgalikda, va Butunjahon cherkovlar kengashi.

Islohot qilingan cherkovlarning Butunjahon birlashmasi

As of June 2010, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches merged with the Isloh qilingan Ekumenik kengash shakllantirish Islohot qilingan cherkovlarning Butunjahon birlashmasi. The result was a form of full communion similar to that outline in the Formula of Agreement, including orderly exchange of ministers.

Masihda birlashayotgan cherkovlar

The PC(USA) is one of nine denominations that joined together to form the Cherkovlar ittifoqi bo'yicha maslahat, which initially sought a merger of the denominations. In 1998 the Seventh Plenary of the Consultation on Church Union approved a document "Churches in Covenant Communion: The Church of Christ Uniting" as a plan for the formation of a covenant communion of churches. In 2002 the nine denominations inaugurated the new relationship and became known as Masihda birlashayotgan cherkovlar. The partnership is considered incomplete until the partnering communions reconcile their understanding of ordination and devise an orderly exchange of clergy.

Hozirgi qarama-qarshiliklar

Gomoseksualizm

Paragraph G-6.0106b of the Book of Order, which was adopted in 1996, prohibited the ordination of those who were not faithful in heterosexual marriage or chaste in singleness. This paragraph was included in the Book of Order from 1997 to 2011, and was commonly referred to by its pre-ratification designation, "Amendment B".[69] Several attempts were made to remove this from the Book of Order, ultimately culminating in its removal in 2011. In 2011, the Presbyteries of the PC(USA) passed Amendment 10-A permitting congregations to ordain openly gay and lesbian elders and deacons, and allowing presbyteries to ordain ministers without reference to the fidelity/chastity provision, saying "governing bodies shall be guided by Scripture and the confessions in applying standards to individual candidates".[70]

Many Presbyterian scholars, pastors, and theologians have been heavily involved in the debate over homosexuality over the years. The Hindistonning Presviterian cherkovi's cooperation with the Presbyterian Church (USA) was dissolved in 2012 when the PC(USA) voted to ordain openly gay clergy to the ministry.[71] In 2012, the PC(USA) granted permission, nationally, to begin ordaining openly gay and lesbian clergy.[72]

1980 yildan beri More Light Churches Network has served many congregations and individuals within American Presbyterianism who promote the full participation of all people in the PC(USA) regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. The Covenant Network of Presbyterians was formed in 1997 to support repeal of "Amendment B" and to encourage networking amongst like-minded clergy and congregations.[73] Other organizations of Presbyterians, such as the Harakatni tan olish va Evangelistlarni tan olish ittifoqi, have organized on the other side of the issue to support the fidelity/chastity standard for ordination, which was removed in 2011.

The Presbyterian Church (USA) voted to allow same-sex marriages on June 19, 2014 during its 221st General Assembly, making it one of the largest Christian denominations in the world to allow same-sex unions. This vote lifted a previous ban, and allows pastors to perform marriages in jurisdictions where it is legal. Additionally, the Assembly approved amending the Book of Order that would change the definition of marriage from "between a man and a woman" to "between two people, traditionally between a man and a woman".

Bosh assambleya 2006 yil

2006 yil Report of the Theological Task Force on Peace, Unity, and Purity of the Church,[74] in theory, attempted to find common ground. Some felt that the adoption of this report provided for a clear local option mentioned, while the Stated Clerk of the General Assembly, Clifton Kirkpatrick went on record as saying, "Our standards have not changed. The rules of the Book of Order stay in force and all ordinations are still subject to review by higher governing bodies." The authors of the report stated that it is a compromise and return to the original Presbyterian culture of local controls. The recommendation for more control by local presbyteries and sessions is viewed by its opposition as a method for bypassing the constitutional restrictions currently in place concerning ordination and marriage, effectively making the constitutional "standard" entirely subjective.

In the General Assembly gathering of June 2006, Presbyterian voting Commissioners passed an "authoritative interpretation", recommended by the Theological Task Force, of the Book of Order (the church constitution). Some argued that this gave presbyteries the "local option" of ordaining or not ordaining anyone based on a particular presbytery's reading of the constitutional statute. Others argued that presbyteries have always had this responsibility and that this new ruling did not change but only clarified that responsibility. On June 20, 2006, the General Assembly voted 298 to 221 (or 57% to 43%) to approve such interpretation. In that same session on June 20, the General Assembly also voted 405 to 92 (with 4 abstentions) to uphold the constitutional standard for ordination requiring fidelity in marriage or chastity in singleness.

General Assembly 2008

The General Assembly of 2008 took several actions related to homosexuality. The first action was to adopt a different translation of the Heidelberg katexizmi from 1962, removing the words "homosexual perversions" among other changes. This will require the approval of the 2010 and 2012 General Assemblies as well as the votes of the presbyteries after the 2010 Assembly.[yangilanishga muhtoj][75] The second action was to approve a new Authoritative Interpretation of G-6.0108 of the Book of Order allowing for the ordaining body to make decisions on whether or not a departure from the standards of belief of practice is sufficient to preclude ordination.[76] Some argue that this creates "local option" on ordaining homosexual persons. The third action was to replace the text of "Amendment B" with new text: "Those who are called to ordained service in the church, by their assent to the constitutional questions for ordination and installation (W-4.4003), pledge themselves to live lives obedient to Jesus Christ the Head of the Church, striving to follow where he leads through the witness of the Scriptures, and to understand the Scriptures through the instruction of the Confessions. In so doing, they declare their fidelity to the standards of the Church. Each governing body charged with examination for ordination and/or installation (G-14.0240 and G-14.0450) establishes the candidate's sincere efforts to adhere to these standards."[77] This would have removed the "fidelity and chastity" clause. This third action failed to obtain the required approval of a majority of the presbyteries by June 2009. Fourth, a resolution was adopted to affirm the definition of marriage from Scripture and the Confessions as being between a man and a woman.[78]

General Assembly 2010

In July 2010, by a vote of 373 to 323, the General Assembly voted to propose to the presbyteries for ratification a constitutional amendment to remove from the Book of Order section G-6.0106.b. which included this explicit requirement for ordination: "Among these standards is the requirement to live either in fidelity within the covenant of marriage between a man and a woman (W-4.9001), or chastity in singleness." This proposal required ratification by a majority of the 173 presbyteries within 12 months of the General Assembly's adjournment.[79][80] A majority of presbytery votes was reached in May 2011. The constitutional amendment took effect July 10, 2011.[81] This amendment shifted back to the ordaining body the responsibility for making decisions about whom they shall ordain and what they shall require of their candidates for ordination. It neither prevents nor imposes the use of the so-called "fidelity and chastity" requirement, but it removes that decision from the text of the constitution and places that judgment responsibility back upon the ordaining body where it had traditionally been prior to the insertion of the former G-6.0106.b. in 1997. Each ordaining body, the session for deacon or elder and the presbytery for minister, is now responsible to make its own interpretation of what scripture and the confessions require of ordained officers.

General Assembly 2014

In June 2014, the General Assembly approved a change in the wording of its constitution to define marriage a contract "between a woman and a man" to being "between two people, traditionally a man and a woman". It allowed gay and lesbian weddings within the church and further allow clergy to perform same-sex weddings. That revision gave clergy the choice of presiding over same-sex marriages, but clergy was not compelled to perform same-sex marriage.

Mulkka egalik

PC(USA)'s book of order includes a "trust clause", which grants ownership of church property to the presbytery. Under this trust clause, the presbytery may assert a claim to the property of the congregation in the event of a congregational split, dissolution (closing), or disassociation from the PC(USA). This clause does not prevent particular churches from leaving the denomination, but if they do, they may not be entitled to any physical assets of that congregation unless by agreement with the presbytery. Recently this provision has been vigorously tested in courts of law.

Isroil-Falastin to'qnashuvi

In June 2004, the General Assembly met in Richmond, Virjiniya, and adopted by a vote of 431–62 a resolution that called on the church's committee on Mission Responsibility through Investment (MRTI) "to initiate a process of phased, selective divestment in multinational corporations operating in Israel". The resolution also said "the occupation ... has proven to be at the root of evil acts committed against innocent people on both sides of the conflict".[82] The church statement at the time noted that "divestment is one of the strategies that U.S. churches used in the 1970s and 80s in a successful campaign to end aparteid in South Africa".

A second resolution, calling for an end to the construction of a wall by the state of Israel, passed.[83] The resolution opposed to the construction of the Isroilning G'arbiy sohilidagi to'siq, joylashgan joyidan qat'i nazar, va Qo'shma Shtatlar hukumatining qurilishga pul hissasini qo'shishiga qarshi edi. The General Assembly also adopted policies rejecting Xristian sionizm and allowing the continued funding of conversionary activities aimed at Jews. Together, the resolutions caused tremendous dissent within the church and a sharp disconnect with the Jewish community. Bir necha amerikalik yahudiy guruhlari rahbarlari cherkovga Isroilda faoliyat yuritayotgan kompaniyalarga tegishli bo'lgan iqtisodiy vositalardan foydalanish borasidagi xavotirlarini etkazishdi.[84] Some critics of the divestment policy accused church leaders of antisemitizm.[85][86][87]

In June 2006, after the General Assembly in Birmingem, Alabama changed policy (tafsilotlar), both pro-Israel and pro-Palestinian groups praised the resolution. Pro-Israel groups, who had written General Assembly commissioners to express their concerns about a corporate engagement/divestment strategy focused on Israel,[88] praised the new resolution, saying that it reflected the church stepping back from a policy that singled out companies working in Israel.[89] Pro-Palestinian groups said that the church maintained the opportunity to engage and potentially divest from companies that support the Israeli occupation, because such support would be considered inappropriate according to the customary MRTI process.

In August 2011, the American National Middle Eastern Presbyterian Caucus (NMEPC) endorsed the boycott, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) campaign against Israel.[90]

In January 2014, The PC(USA) published "Zionism unsettled", which was commended as "a valuable opportunity to explore the political ideology of Zionism".[91] One critic claimed it was sionistik and characterised the Israeli–Palestinian as a conflict fueled by a "pathology inherent in Zionism".[92] The Simon Wiesenthal markazi described the study guide as "a hit-piece outside all norms of interfaith dialogue. It is a compendium of distortions, ignorance and outright lies – that tragically has emanated too often from elites within this church".[93] The PC(USA) subsequently withdrew the publication from sale on its website.[94]

On June 20, 2014 the General Assembly in Detroit approved a measure (310–303) calling for divestment from stock in Caterpillar, Hewlett-Packard and Motorola Solutions in protest of Israeli policies on the West Bank. The vote was immediately and sharply criticized by the Amerika yahudiy qo'mitasi which accused the General Assembly of acting out of anti-Semitic motives. Proponents of the measure strongly denied the accusations.[95]

List of notable congregations

Shuningdek qarang

Adabiyotlar

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Bibliografiya

  • General Assembly (2009), "The Rules of Discipline", Book of Order, Louisville: Presbyterian Church (USA).
  • Hall, Russell E. (Summer 1982), "American Presbyterian Churches—A Genealogy, 1706–1982", Presviterian tarixi jurnali, 60: 95–128
  • Longfield, Bradley J. (2013), Presviterianlar va Amerika madaniyati: tarix, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster Johh Knox Press, ISBN 9780664231569
  • Oast, Jennifer (November 2010), "'The Worst Kind of Slavery': Slave-Owning Presbyterian Churches in Prince Edward County, Virginia", Janubiy tarix jurnali, 76 (4): 867–900.

Qo'shimcha o'qish

  • Alvis, Joel L, Jr (1994), Religion and Race: Southern Presbyterians, 1946–1983, 197 pp.
  • Balmer, Randall; Fitzmier, John R (1993), The Presbyterians, 274 pp. Excellent survey by scholars; good starting place.
  • Banker, Mark T (1993), Presbyterian Missions and Cultural Interaction in the Far Southwest, 1850–1950, 225 pp.
  • Bender, Norman J (1996), Winning the West for Christ: Sheldon Jackson and Presbyterianism on the Rocky Mountain Frontier, 1869–1880, 265 pp.
  • Boyd, Lois A; Brackenridge, R Douglas (1983), Presbyterian Women in America: Two Centuries of a Quest for Status, 308 pp.
  • Fraser, Brian J (1988), The Social Uplifters: Presbyterian Progressives and the Social Gospel in Canada, 1875–1915, 212 pp.
  • Hirrel, Leo P (1998), Children of Wrath: New School Calvinism and Antebellum Reform, 248 bet.
  • Klempa, William, ed. (1994), The Burning Bush and a Few Acres of Snow: The Presbyterian Contribution to Canadian Life and Culture, 290 pp.
  • LeBeau, Bryan F (1997), Jonathan Dickinson and the Formative Years of American Presbyterianism, 252 pp.
  • Loetscher, Lefferts A (1983), Presviterianlarning qisqacha tarixi, 224 pp. A good overview.
  • Longfield, Bradley J (1991), Presviterian bahslari: fundamentalistlar, modernistlar va mo''tadillar, 333 pp.
  • Lucas, Sean Michael (2006), On Being Presbyterian: Our Beliefs, Practices, and Stories, ASIN 1596380195CS1 tarmog'i: ASIN ISBN-dan foydalanadi (havola).
  • McKim, Donald K (2003), Presviterian e'tiqodlari: qisqacha kirish, ASIN 0664502539CS1 tarmog'i: ASIN ISBN-dan foydalanadi (havola).
  • Moir, Jon S (1975), Doimiy guvoh: Kanadadagi Presviterian cherkovi tarixi, 311 bet.
  • Noll, Mark; Xart, DG; Vesterkamp, ​​Merilin J (2006), "Amerikalik presviterianlar to'g'risida aniq amerikalik nima bo'lgan?", Presviterian tarixi jurnali, 84 (1): 6–22.
  • Parker, Harold M, Jr (1988), Janubning birlashgan sinodi: Janubiy yangi maktab presviterian cherkovi, 347 bet.
  • Presviterian cherkovi (AQSh) (1999 y.), E'tiroflar kitobi: Study Edition, Louisville, KY: Jeneva Press, ISBN 0-664-50012-9.
  • Presviterian ishtiroki: Yigirmanchi asr tajribasi.
    • Ko'mir, Milton J; Mulder, Jon M; Hafta, Louis B, tahrir. (1992), Plyuralistik Vizyon: Presviterianlar va asosiy protestant ta'lim va etakchilik. 417 bet.
    • Ko'mir, Milton J; Mulder, Jon M; Hafta, Louis B, tahrir. (1992), Tashkiliy inqilob: Presviterianlar va Amerika denominatsionalizmi. 391 bet.
    • Ko'mir, Milton J; Mulder, Jon M; Hafta, Louis B, tahrir. (1990), Konfessional mozaika: presviterianlar va yigirmanchi asr ilohiyoti. 333 bet.
    • Ko'mir, Milton J; Mulder, Jon M; Hafta, Louis B, tahrir. (1990), Asosiy oqim protestantlari "tanazzul": Presviterian naqshlari. 263 bet.
    • ———; ———; Hafta, Louis B, tahrir. (1990), Presviterian taxminlari: oltita istiqbol, 179 bet.
  • Smit, Frank Jozef (1985), Amerikadagi Presviterian cherkovi tarixi, 607 bet.
  • Tompson, Ernest Trice (1963), Janubdagi presviterianlar, 1, 1607–1861, 629 bet.
  • Wellman, Jeyms K, kichik (1999), Oltin sohil cherkovi va getto: Masih va asosiy yo'nalishdagi protestantizm madaniyati, 241 bet (Chikagodagi elita to'rtinchi Presviterian cherkovida).
  • Weston, Uilyam J (1997), Presviterian plyuralizm: protestant uyidagi raqobat, 192 bet.
  • Yohn, Syuzan M (1995), Iymonlar tanlovi: Amerika janubi-g'arbiy qismida missioner ayollar va plyuralizm, 266 bet.

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